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Novititae Cantus, an electronic newsletter pertaining to chant: Volume 5

Date: Wed, 31 Dec 1997 23:54:44 +0100 (MET)
To: jfeiszli@silver.sdsmt.edu
From: Guido Milanese
Subject: Notitiae Cantus 1997/2

I am hereby sending the new issue of Notitiae
Cantus in text form. However, since both HTML and LaTeX files are
available, and the output is obviously nicer, I encourage readers
to download one of the two versions from my homepages. Moreover,
in this issue NC publishes an article in Spanish, and the
correct spelling (accents) is not possible using plain Ascii
e-mail.

Please send your articles and reviews to Notitiae Cantus!

Best regards,
Guido Milanese
Editor of Notitiae Cantus

% Guido Milanese - e-mail mc1194@mclink.it %
% Universita' Cattolica del Sacro Cuore %
% Largo Gemelli 1, I-20123 Milano MI %
% Phone: +39.2.72342-750 Fax -740 %
% Home: Salita del Passero 11, I-16126 Genova GE +39-10-252959 %
# Homepage in English: http://www.geocities.com/Vienna/3023 #
# Homepage in Italian: http://www.mclink.it/personal/MC1194 #

Notitiae Cantus

An International Newsletter
for Gregorian Chant and other Repertoires of Western Chant

IV 2
1997


INDEX

1 To the Reader -- Lectori b.

1.1 Editorial
by Guido Milanese

2 Practica cantus

2.1 El Canto Gregoriano en el Uruguay
por Enrique Merello

2.2 Gregorian Chant in Uruguay
by Enrique Merello

2.3 Gregorian Chant seminars in Latvia
by Ilze Melbikse


Notitiae Cantus
Subscription to this newsletter through e-mail is free. A
hardcopy of Notitiae Cantus will be made available to subscribers
who require or prefer this mode of publication. In order to cover
the cost of printing and postage, an annual charge of $15 will be
asked for this service. Contributions written in languages other
then Latin and English must be followed by a translation or
abstract in Latin or English. Please direct your comments or
questions to the Internet address mc1194@mclink.it. For WWW
users, the files are available at
http://www.mclink.it/personal/mc1194/gregornc.htm/ or from the
archive for rec.music.early on
http://www.wu-wien.ac.at/earlym-l/Notitiae.Cantus/ and on
ftp://ftp.wu-wien.ac.at/pub/earlym-l/Notitiae.Cantus/. This
issue has been sent to 282 e-mail subscribers.

Genova, 30 dicembre 1997
Guido Milanese

Home
Salita del Passero 11, I-16126 Genova GE, Italia
Tel. +39.10.252959

Office
Universita' Cattolica, Largo Gemelli 1, I-20123 Milano MI, Italia
Tel. +39.2.72342-750, fax -740

NON NOBIS DOMINE NON NOBIS: SED NOMINI TUO DA GLORIAM



PARS 1
To the Reader -- Lectori b.

1.1 Editorial
by Guido Milanese

This issue of NC contains a new feature: the article by Enrique
Merello on Gregorian Chant in Uruguay is published in Spanish and
English. Since NC is now really international, I think that
publishing articles in the original languages may be approved by
those who can read these languages. An English translation or an
English abstract will be published for any article written in
languages other than English or Latin.

In hoc volumine, lector nobis dilectissime, aliquid novum
invenies, scilicet disputationem lingua Hispanica scriptam, non
Anglica, disputationem dico v.d. Henrici Merello de Cantu
Gregoriano in Uruquariana Republica. Volumina haec nostra, quibus
titulus est ``Notitiae Cantus'', vere omnium gentium nunc dici
possunt, ipsaque lingua auctorum disputationes emittendae
videntur, ita ut ab iis omnibus, qui non solum Anglice dicere
possint, maiore delectatione verba legantur. Praeterea,
disputationibus neque Anglice neque Latine conscriptis
interpretationem Latinam vel Anglicam semper addendam curabimus.



PARS 2
Practica cantus

2.1 El Canto Gregoriano en el Uruguay
por Enrique Merello

Enrique Merello (Jose' Bonaparte 3002, 11600 Montevideo,
Uruguay): Gregorianista uruguayo nacido el 21 de marzo de
1962, discipulo del Profesor Nino Albarosa en el PIMS de
Roma, del Padre Raul Patri en la Escuela Universitaria de
Musica del Uruguay, y del Padre Eugenio Garateguy. Fundador y
Director de la Schola Cantorum de Montevideo, ha publicado
sobre su especialidad en diversos medios de su pais, y
ofrecido disertaciones tanto en el Uruguay como en Europa.

En este pequeno pais del Cono sur latinoamericano, de la
tradicion gregoriana vernacula no se tiene documentacion anterior
a 1824. De esa epoca data la referencia hecha por Jose Sallusti,
secretario de la Mision Apostolica Muzi, que tambien integraba el
Canonigo Mastai Ferretti -- luego elevado a la Catedra de San
Pedro con el nombre de Pio IX -- quien da cuenta de que ``en un
pequeno pueblo de indios llamado Durazno'' asistio a una misa
``con canto gregoriano muy bien entonado'' por los propios indi
genas. A lo que el mismo cronista agrega: ``como si estuviesen
todavia bajo el regimen de aquellos buenos Directores de la
Compani a que los habian instruido''.

Con ello se hace referencia a la inequivoca procedencia religiosa
de estos indigenas, sino a su filiacion etnica, aunque no es
dificil deducir que se trate de indios de las Misiones
Jesuiticas, dispersos tras la expulsion de la Compania de Jesus
de Espana y los territorios de ultramar, en 1767.

En la capital Montevideo, entretanto, el conocimiento y practica
del gregoriano en el siglo XIX, se confirma mediante los libros
supervivientes a la Tercera Orden franciscana que tenia sede en
la Iglesia de San Francisco, y su valioso archivo musical, el mas
importante del pais.

Entre los primeros, se destaca un _Missale Romanum_ impreso en
Madrid en 1797, segun el gregoriano residual de la _Medicea_,
entonces el unico conocido; el archivo musical, por su parte,
permite tomar contacto con los manuscritos anonimos de dos _Misas
de Cantollano_, una de ellas incompleta, que ni por su notacion
figurada, su ritmo medido y su tonalidad moderna, pueden
vincularse con el canto gregoriano autentico. No obstante ello,
estas piezas demuestran fehacientemente que la construccion
monodica caracteristica de esta _summa_ musical era bien conocida
en estas tierras, seguramente mas que por los libros, por el
habito de practicarla en los templos locales.

Por el espanol entonces, estos pueblos nuevos interpretaban en
instrumentos europeos, cantaban gregoriano, polifonia, e incluso
se lanzaban a la incierta aventura de la creacion musical, desde
la tradicion liturgica romana, y sus formas musicales mas
reconocidas.

EL SIGLO XX
Desaparecidos los amerindios del Uruguay a mediados del siglo
pasado, el pais recibio en cambio una fuerte corriente
inmigratoria, principalmente de los paises mediterraneos. Esto
puede explicar la receptividad en estas tierras a manifestaciones
culturales tan tipicamente europeas como el canto gregoriano, y
aun el hecho de que, ya en este siglo, sacerdotes como el Padre
Pedro Rota, compositor y conocedor de las investigaciones
solesmenses, se haya preocupado por poner en practica las
directivas liturgicas comprendidas en el _Motu proprio} de San
Pio X. En todas las diocesis uruguayas, parroquias, institutos de
formacion y comunidades religiosas, comenzo a hacerse oir el
gregoriano segun el ``metodo de Solesmes'', y el _Liber Usualis_
de Dom Mocquereau hizo conocer en todo el pais estas melodias, a
partir de las versiones restituidas.

En los anos `30 inclusive, algunos sacerdotes se consagraban a la
docencia, como es el caso del Padre Luis Ochoa, preceptor de
personalidades conspicuas en el ambito de la musica _culta_,
entre las que destaco el compositor Carlos Estrada. Otros
cultores de esta disciplina fueron el Padre Wilhelm Tonnet,
Maestro de capilla de la Catedral Metropolitana de Montevideo, y
el salesiano Alberto Gonzalez.

Pero no siempre el gregoriano sono cuando era debido. Una
exhortacion del propio Arzobispo de Montevideo Juan Francisco
Aragone en 1940, ya clamaba por un respeto a esta tradicion
musical, arguyendo lo establecido por la propia Santa Sede en
este sentido, a lo cual no se le consideraba sino parcialmente.
Dice a este respecto con palabras energicas, Mons. Aragone:
``Instamos a todos, clero y fieles, particularmente a los mas
interesados por su oficio, Parrocos, Rectores, Capellanes,
Maestros y Maestras de Coros, Organistas y Cantores, a que se
pongan seriamente, una vez por todas, a conocer y cumplir leyes
tan necesarias para el decoro de las sagradas funciones,
desterrando, total y radicalmente, los abusos que aun quedan.
(...) Nadie pues, en adelante, quiera menoscabar con musicas
profanas de canto o de organo, la santidad de las funciones
eclesiasticas del Culto; no sea que merezca oir la terrible frase
de la Escritura: ``Maldito el que hace la obra de Dios
defraudandola'', del respeto y santidad que se le debe'',
prescribiendo a continuacion el uso del canto gregoriano
restaurado, segun la _Vaticana_.


LOS ANHOS POST-CONCILIARES
La experiencia mas reciente es necesario rastrearla a partir del
ultimo Concilio ecumenico el cual, con la admision de las lenguas
modernas en la Sagrada Liturgia, precipito la sustitucion de las
piezas gregorianas por otras provenientes de repertorios de
origen y calidad muy variados, tanto del cantoral hispanico como
del latinoamericano, personalizado por su fuerte acento
folklorico.

En otro sentido, sino la practica liturgica, la ensenanza de la
disciplina se vio favorecida, al crearse la Catedra de Canto
gregoriano en la Escuela de Musica de la Universidad de la
Republica, desde 1980 a cargo del Padre Raul Patri, un discipulo
de Dom Cardine en el _PIMS_ de Roma. Pocos anos despues, el Padre
Eugenio Garateguy, formado en la _Kirchemusikschule_ de
Regensburg durante el ultimo periodo de Mons. Ferdinand Haberl,
inicia el dictado de cursos de canto gregoriano -- uno de ellos,
ofrecido en 1984 con los auspicios del Ministerio de Educacion y
Cultura uruguayo- que luego daran lugar a incipientes
organizaciones corales. Entre ellas, el Coro _San Gregorio Magno_
fundado en 1987 que, aunque de vida breve, volvio a hacer resonar
el canto gregoriano en las bovedas de los templos y aun en los
salones de las instituciones catolicas de la capital uruguaya.

Como ultima etapa, cabria mencionar la fundacion de la _Schola
Cantorum de Montevideo_ en 1988, por el autor de estas lineas. Se
trata de una entidad _sui generis, }organizada como verdadera
fraternidad de cantores, con vida de oracion, y vivencia del
gregoriano en ese contexto, auspiciada por instituciones
tradicionales del medio, entre las que destaca la Asociacion
Uruguaya de la Orden de Malta.

La _Schola Cantorum_ organiza desde sus mismos origenes cursos y
seminarios de introduccion al estudio del canto gregoriano, y
orienta su actividad al area divulgativa, a traves de recitales y
participaciones en diversos eventos, y al area liturgica, en
coordinacion con el cercano Monasterio ``Santa Clara'', donde su
Director imparte cursos a las religiosas de esa comunidad (que se
constituye ademas en la unica que tiene practica cotidiana de
esta musica liturgica en el Uruguay), al igual que en otros
conservatorios privados de Montevideo.

No resulta aventurado pues, hablar de Montevideo, como una nueva
_plaza_ gregoriana: existe en esta ciudad una escuela y una
relacion de continuidad en su propia actividad, que da sentido al
esfuerzo, y favorece al crecimiento de manifestaciones del
espiritu humano tan ricas, como la que nos ocupa.




2.2 Gregorian Chant in Uruguay
by Enrique Merello

Enrique Merello (Jose' Bonaparte 3002, 11600 Montevideo,
Uruguay): Uruguayan Gregorianist born on the 21st of March,
1962, pupil of Professor Nino Albarosa at the PIMS of Rome,
of Father Raul Patri at the Escuela Universitaria de Musica
del Uruguay, and of Father Eugenio Garateguy. Founder and
Director of the Schola Cantorum de Montevideo. He published
works on this area in several media of his country, and has
given lectures in Uruguay and Europe.


In this small Southern country called Uruguay there is no
documentation on a Gregorian local tradition prior to 1824. At
that time, Jose' Sallusti (who was Secretary of the Muzi
Apostolical Mission, also integrated by Cannon Giovanni M. Mastai
Ferretti, later promoted to St. Peter's Cathedra as Pius IX)
registered that ``in a small Indian town called Durazno''he
attended mass ``where a very well tuned Gregorian chant was
performed by the Indians, in such a way it seemed they were still
under the direction of the good Masters of the Company that had
instructed them''.

This statement unmistakably refers to the religious heritage of
these Indians and not to their ethnical origins, and it's quite
easy to deduce that Jose' Sallusti was referring to Indians
belonging to the Jesuit Missions. After the expulsion of the
Company of Jesus from Spain and from the overseas territories in
1767, these Indians scattered all over the region.

Meanwhile in Montevideo, the capital city of Uruguay, the
knowledge and performance of the Gregorian chant in the 19th
century is confirmed both by the surviving books of the Third
Franciscan Order which was established in this city at the San
Francisco Church and through its valuable musical archives, the
most important of the country.

Outstanding among the most ancient books is a _Missale Romanum_
printed in Madrid in 1797, featuring the Gregorian Chant of the
_Medicea_, the only edition widely known those times. These music
archives also allow us to get acquainted with the anonymous
manuscripts of two _Misas de Cantollano_. One of them, not
complete, cannot be related to authentic Gregorian chant neither
by its figured notation and measured rhythm nor by its modern
tonality. Nevertheless, these pieces thoroughly prove that the
characteristic monodic construction of the Gregorian musical
_summa} was very well known by that time in this territory,
probably due to the habit of practicing it in local temples
rather than its appreciation through the books.

Through the people from Spain then, these new peoples learnt to
play European instruments, sang Gregorian chant and polyphony and
they even launched out into the uncertain experience of musical
creation from traditional Roman Liturgy and its most recognized
musical forms.


THE 20TH CENTURY
After the Indians of Uruguay disappeared in the past mid-century,
the country received a strong migratory influence from the
Mediterranean countries. This might explain the acceptance of
typical Mediterranean cultural expressions such as Gregorian
chant, as well as the fact that, in our century, priests like
Father Pedro Rota -- a composer acquainted with the Solesmes
Abbey researches on Gregorian chant -- had been concerned about
putting into practice the liturgical rules of the St. Pius X's
_Motu proprio_. Gregorian chant according to ``Solesmes method''
began to be performed at Uruguayan Dioceses, Parishes, Institutes
and Religious Communities and Dom Mocquereau's _Liber Usualis_
taught these melodies -- according to the restored versions --
all over the country .

Also in the thirties some priests were devoted to teaching. This
is the case of Father Luis Ochoa, who was ``praeceptor'' of
celebrities in the classical music world (among them an
outstanding musician was composer Carlos Estrada). Other priests
who developed this discipline were Father Wilhelm Tonnet,
_Maestro di Cappella_ of Montevideo Metropolitan Cathedral, and
the salesian priest Alberto Gonzalez.

However, Gregorian chant was not always performed as it should
have been. In 1940, the Archbishop of Montevideo Juan Francisco
Aragone claimed for a greater concern for this musical tradition,
reminding the prescriptions of the Holy See about this matter.
About this precise topic Msgr. Aragone said: ``We urge all the
people, clergymen and the faithful and particularly those most
interested in it, like principals, chaplains, choir directors,
organists, and singers to obey once and for all the necessary
laws in order to preserve the dignity of the sacred functions and
to put aside the still remaining abuses. (...) Therefore nobody,
from now on, should discredit with profane music the sanctity of
the ecclesiastical functions of the cult, so as not to deserve
hearing the terrible expression of the Holy Scripture: ``Be
damned those who perform God's work by deceiving'' the respect
and sanctity it is worth of''. In this way he recommended the use
of the restored Gregorian chant according the _Vaticana_.

AFTER VATICAN II
The most recent experience begins with the latest Ecumenical
Council. By that time the acceptance of modern languages within
the Holy Liturgy accelerated the process of substituting
Gregorian repertoire with other music, of multifold quality.
These pieces came from the Spanish and Latin American repertories
-- the latter emphasizing its strong folkloric nature.

On the other hand, the teaching of Gregorian Chant -- but not its
practice in the Liturgy -- was favoured by the creation of a
Gregorian chant professorship at the _Escuela Universitaria de
Musica del Uruguay_, since 1980 directed by Father Raul Patri, a
pupil of Dom Cardine's at the _PIMS_ of Rome. A few years later,
Father Eugenio Garateguy, pupil of the _Kirchemusikschule_ of
Regensburg during Ferdinand Haberl last years, began offering
Gregorian chant courses -- one of them in 1984 sponsored by the
Uruguayan Secretary of Education and Culture -- which was the
starting point of several choral organizations such as the ``San
Gregorio Magno'' Choir, founded in 1987. In spite of its short
life, it made Gregorian chant sound in churches and even at the
Catholic Institutions of the Uruguayan Capital.

As a latest stage, the creation of the _Schola Cantorum de
Montevideo_ in 1988 by the author of this report should be
especially mentioned. It is a _sui generis }institution organized
as a real fraternity of singers, where Gregorian chant is
performed in a context of prayer. It is sponsored by traditional
institutions in the country, including the _Asociacion Uruguaya
de la Orden de Malta_. Since its beginning the _Schola Cantorum
de Montevideo_ has been organizing courses and introductory
seminars to Gregorian chant study. Its activities are focused on
divulging the knowledge of this music through live performances
and taking part in several musical events. As for liturgy, this
institution operates in coordination with the neighbouring
``Santa Clara'' Monastery, which is moreover the only one
regularly featuring this liturgical music in Uruguay.

Therefore it wouldn't be too hazardous to consider Montevideo as
a new ``Gregorian place''. This city has a school and also a
constant liaison to Gregorian Chant, and thanks to this
continuity our efforts make sense, encouraging the development of
deep and profound expressions of human spirit, as the one we are
talking about.



2.3 Gregorian Chant seminars in Latvia
by Ilze Melbikse

Every summer a group of people (approx. 100), interested in
learning, using, and ``feeling'' Gregorian chant as a way of real
liturgical language, gather for a one-week seminar (about 100 km
from Riga), near a small village on the bank of the lake, living
in schoolchildren hostel in a quite simple way. Four services are
offered daily (one in Latvian, the others in Latin): Laudes,
Sexta, Vespers and Completorium. On Sundays there is an
Eucharistic Liturgy celebrated by the Lutheran Archbishop.

Most of the participants are Lutherans, but there are also
Catholics and Ortodoxes. The 1997 edition was the fifth. Further
information is available through the Internet: please refer to
http://www.lmuza.lv/ and to
http://www.icb.nl/musicweek/events.htm.